Scientific Papers

QBC ParaLens Fluorescence Microscopy Attachment

The QBC ParaLens is a remarkable tool for clinical and research applications. It has been used widely in tropical diagnostics and has shown significant utility for many microbiological assays. Listed below are abstracts and links for scientific articles that report or discuss the utility of the ParaLens for many different applications.


Minion, J., Sohn, H., and Pai, M. (2009) Light-emitting diode technologies for TB diagnosis: what is on the market? Expert Review of Medical Devices 6(4): 341-345

Stop TB Retooling Task Force (2008) New Diagnostic Tools for Tuberculosis Control. World Health Organization

Ramsay A, Cuevas LE, Mundy CJF, Nathanson C-M, Chirambo P, et al. (2009) New Policies, New Technologies: Modelling the Potential for Improved Smear Microscopy Services in Malawi. PLoS ONE 4(11): e7760. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007760.

Armstrong, D. (Dec. 2009 / Jan. 2010) LED-based fluoroscopy and the ParaLens system: illuminating the future of TB diagnostics. Clinical Laboratory International.

Walter Kuhn, Derek Armstrong, Suzanne Atteberry, Euline Dewbrey, Diane Smith and Nancy Hooper (2010) Usefulness of the ParaLens™ Fluorescent Microscope Adaptor for the Identification of Mycobacteria in Both Field and Laboratory Settings


Anthony, R.L., Bangs, M.J., Anthony, J.M., and Purnomo. (1992) On-site diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae by using the Quantitative Buffy Coat system. Journal of Parasitoogyl. 78(6):994-8.

Lenz, D., Kremsner, P.G., Lell, B., Biallas, B., Boettcher, M., Mordmuller, B. and Adegnika, A.A. (2011) Assessment of LED fluorescence microscopy for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Gabon. Malaria Journal, (10)194.


Bailey, J.W. and Smith, D.H. (1994) The quantitative buffy coat for the diagnosis of trypanosomes. Tropical Doctor 24(2):54-6.


Freedman, D.O. and Berry, R.S. (1992) Rapid Diagnosis of Bancroftian Filariasis by Acridine Orange Staining of Centrifuged Parasites. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 47(6): 787-793.

Pneumocystis Carinii

A. R. Mattia, M. A. Waldron, and L. S. Sierra. (1993) Use of the UV ParaLens adapter as an alternative to conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in direct immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody-stained pulmonary specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31(3): 720-721.


Mattia, A.R., Waldron, M.A., and Sierra, L.S. (1993)Use of the Quantitative Buffy Coat system for detection of parasitemia in patients with babesiosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 31(10):2816-8.


Kramer, K.J., Pang, L.W., Minette, H.P., and Perrone, J.B. (1994) Evaluation of the quantitative buffy coat analysis (QBC) system for the detection of Leptospira in human blood. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 25(4):788-9.


Polsuwan, C., Lumlertdaecha, B., Tepsumethanon, W., and Wilde, H. (1992) Using the UV ParaLens adapter on a standard laboratory microscope for fluorescent rabies antibody detection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86(1):107.

QBC F.A.S.T. TB Kits

Fluorescence Microscopy (FM) for tuberculosis detection has been in use since the mid 1940s and is the method of choice for large labs in developed nations. FM has been shown to provide many performance advantages over bright field techniques such as increased sensitivity while maintaining specificity as well as a decrease in the time required for examinations by up to 75 percent.

Recent improvements in fluorescence microscopy instruments, including the implementation of durable, long lived bright LEDs have solved many of the issues that have prevented fluorescence microscopy from becoming an accepted methodology for developing countries and low resource settings. With this improved technology, the benefits of fluorescence microscopy for detection of TB can be had virtually anywhere without sacrificing the sensitivity and specificity obtained with conventional FM.

Githui W., Kitui F., Juma E. S., Obwana D. O., Mwai J., and Kwamanga D.
(1993) A comparative study on the reliability of fluorescence microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen method in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. East African Medical Journal; 70:263-266.

Truant, J.P., Brett, W.A., and Thomas, W. Jr. (1962) Fluorescence Microscopy
of Tubercle Bacilli Stained with Auramine and Rhodamine

Steingart K.R., Henry M., Ng. V. et al. (2006) Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infectious Disease 6(9):570-581.

Minion, J., Sohn, H, and Pai, M (2009) Light-emitting diode technologies for TB diagnosis: what is on the market? Expert Reviews of Medical Devices; 6(8): 341-345.

Ramsay A, Cuevas LE, Mundy CJF, Nathanson C-M, Chirambo P, et al. (2009) New Policies, New Technologies: Modelling the Potential for Improved Smear Microscopy Services in Malawi. PLoS ONE 4(11): e7760. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007760.

QBC Malaria Test

The following scientific studies on the QBC Malaria Test technology are available from external soruces, such as (  All quoted abstracts are available on the PubMed website.

Diagnosis of Haematoparasites Using Quantitative Buffy Coat Analysis (QBC)

Spielman A, Perrone JB, Teklehaimanot A, Balcha F, Wardlaw SC, & Levine RA, 1988: Malaria diagnosis by direct observation of centrifuged samples of blood. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 39 (4), 337-42.

Levine RA, Wardlaw SC, & Patton CL, 1989: Detection of haematoparasites using quantitative buffy coat analysis tubes. Parasitol Today, 5 (4), 132-4.

Malaria Studies (General)

J. Gallagher, 2012 Screening for malaria: the QBC technique.

Alunni-Perret V, Vandenbos F, Kechkekian A, Marty P, Legros F, Michiels JF, Cardot-Leccia N, Fortineau N, Durant J, Quatrehomme G.: Fatal cerebral malaria diagnosed after death in a French patient. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010 Sep; 31(3):269-72.

Parija SC, Dhodapkar R, Elangovan S, Chaya DR: A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009 Apr-Jun;52(2):200-2.

Jain M & Kaur M, 2005: Comparative study of microscopic detection methods and haematological changes in malaria. Indian J Pathol Microbiol., 48 (4), 464-7.

Malik S, Khan S, Das A, & Samantaray JC, 2004: Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay to detect malarial parasites. Natl Med J India, 17 (5), 237-9.

Nandwani S, Mathur M, and Rawat S, 2003: Evaluation of the direct acridine orange staining method and Q.B.C. test for diagnosis of malaria in Delhi, India. J Commun Dis., 35 (4), 279-82.

Barman D, Mirdha BR, Samantray JC, Kironde F, Kabra SK, and Guleria R, 2003: Evaluation of quantitative buffy coat (QBC) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of malaria. J Commun Dis., 35 (3), 170-81.

Yavo W, Ackra KN, Menan EI, Barro-Kiki PC, Kassi RR, Adjetey TA, Bamba A,
and Kone M, 2002: Comparative study of four malaria diagnostic techniques used in Ivory Coast . Bull Soc Pathol Exot., 95 (4), 238-40.

Krishna BV and Deshpande AR, 2003: Comparison between conventional and QBC methods for diagnosis of malaria. Indian J Pathol Microbiol., 46 (3), 517-20.

Pinto M JW, Rodrigues SR, Desouza R, and Verenkar MP, 2001: Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (4), 219-221.

Singh H, Tyagi PK, and Sharma SK, 2001: Quantitative buffy coat versus conventional microscopy. J Assoc Physicians India., 49, 945-6.

Hovette P, Aubron C, Perrier-Gros-Claude JD, Schieman R, N'Dir MC, and Camara P, 2001: Value of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) in borreliasis-malaria co-infection. Med Trop (Mars). 61 (2), 196-7.

Thakor HG, 2000: Laboratory diagnosis of malaria. J Indian Med Assoc., 98 (10), 623-7.

Biswas R, Sengupta G, and Mundle M, 1999:  A controlled study on haemograms of malaria patients in Calcutta.  Indian J Malariol, 36 (1-2), 42-8.

Mirdha BR, Samantray JC, Burman D, Mishra B, and Ghimire P, 1999: Quantitative buffy coat: a special adjunct for diagnosis of malaria. J Commun Dis., 31 (1), 19-22.

el Serougi AO and Amin AM, 1998: The quantitative buffy coat capillary tubes versus thin and thick blood films in the diagnosis of malaria in Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol., 28 (1), 17-22.

Damodar SU, 1996: Evaluation of acridine-orange staining of centrifuged parasites in malarial infection. Indian J Med Sci., 50 (7), 228-30.

Wang X, Zhu S, Liu Q, Hu A, Zan Z, Yu Q, and Yin Q, 1996: Field evaluation of the QBC technique for rapid diagnosis of vivax malaria. Bull World Health Organ., 74 (6), 599-603.

Bawden M, Malone J, and Slaten D, 1994: QBC malaria diagnosis: easily learned and effectively applied in a temporary military field laboratory. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg., 88 (3), 302

Long GW, Jones TR, Rickman LS, Fries L, Egan J, Wellde B, and Hoffman SL, 1994: Acridine orange diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum: evaluation after experimental infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 51 (5), 613-6.

Pornsilapatip J, Namsiripongpun V, Wilde H, Hanvanich M, Chutivongse S, 1990: Detection of Plasmodia in acridine orange stained capillary tubes (the QBC system). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 21 (4), 534-40.

Benito A, Roche J, Molina R, Amela C, and Alvar J., 1994: Application and evaluation of QBC malaria diagnosis in a holoendemic area. Appl Parasitol., 35 (4), 266-72.

Rickman LS, Long GW, Oberst R, Cabanban A, Sangalang R, Smith JI, Chulay JD, and Hoffman SL, 1989: Rapid diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange staining of centrifuged parasites. Lancet, 1 (8629), 68-71.